DevOps is not just about tools alone but it is also a set of best practices that enable us to bridge the gap between the development and operations teams in the areas of continuous integration and deployment by using an integrated set of tools to automate the software delivery.
DevOps engineer continues to be one of the hottest professions in IT. Indeed listed it as number 10 on their list of best jobs of 2018 based on growth in number of postings (91 percent) and average base salary ($125,714). It should come as little surprise that finding a great DevOps engineer can be a challenging prospect.
However, cracking the DevOps interview is not easy and requires a lot of preparation. To help you out, we have collected the Top DevOps Interview Questions and Answers which are crafted by industry experts, and they will surely help you progress forward in DevOps development.
Top DevOps Interview Questions in 2020
Can you tell us the fundamental differences between DevOps & Agile?
Although DevOps shares some similarities with the Agile methodology, which is one of the most popular SDLC methodologies, both are fundamentally different approaches to software development. Following are the various fundamental differences between the two:
Agile Approach – The agile approach is only meant for development in Agile while the agile approach is meant for both development and operations in DevOps.
Practices and Processes – While agile involves practices such as Agile Scrum and Agile Kanban, DevOps involves processes such as CD (Continuous Delivery), CI (Continuous Integration), and CT (Continuous Testing).
Priority – Agile prioritizes timeliness whereas, DevOps gives equal priority to timeliness and quality.
Release Cycles – DevOps offers smaller release cycles with immediate feedback while Agile offers only smaller release cycles without immediate feedback.
Feedback Source – Agile relies on feedback from customers while feedback from self (monitoring tools) is involved in DevOps.
Scope of Work – For Agile, the scope of work is agility only but for DevOps, it is agility and the need for automation.
What is the need for DevOps?
According to me, this answer should start by explaining the general market trend. Instead of releasing big sets of features, companies are trying to see if small features can be transported to their customers through a series of release trains. This has many advantages like quick feedback from customers, better quality of software etc. which in turn leads to high customer satisfaction. To achieve this, companies are required to:
Increase deployment frequency
Lower failure rate of new releases
Shortened lead time between fixes
Faster mean time to recovery in the event of new release crashing
DevOps fulfills all these requirements and helps in achieving seamless software delivery. You can give examples of companies like Etsy, Google and Amazon which have adopted DevOps to achieve levels of performance that were unthinkable even five years ago. They are doing tens, hundreds or even thousands of code deployments per day while delivering world class stability, reliability and security.
List the core operations of DevOps for application development and infrastructure.
The core operations of DevOps for application development and infrastructure are listed below:
Application development consists of the following core operations:
Infrastructure consists of the following core operations:
In your opinion, what are the major benefits of implementing DevOps automation?
Following are the major benefits of implementing DevOps automation:
Removal of the possibility of human error from the CD equation (Core benefit).
As tasks become more predictable and repeatable, it is easy to identify and correct when something goes wrong. Hence, it results in producing more reliable and robust systems.
Removes bottlenecks from the CI pipeline. It results in increased deployment frequency and decreased number of failed deployments. Both of them are important DevOps KPIs.
Why do we need DevOps?
Organizations these days are trying to transport small features to customers via a series of release trains instead of releasing big feature sets. There are several benefits of doing so, including better software quality and quick customer feedback.
All such benefits lead to a higher level of customer satisfaction, which is the most important goal for any product development project. To do so, companies need to:
Increase deployment frequency
Lessen lead time between fixes
The lower failure rate of new releases
In case of new release crashing, have a faster mean time to recovery
DevOps helps in fulfilling all these requirements and thus, achieving seamless software delivery. Full-fledged organizations like Amazon, Etsy, and Google have adopted DevOps methodology resulting in achieving performance levels that were previously uncharted.
With the adoption of DevOps methodology, organizations are able to accomplish tens to thousands of deployments in a single day. Moreover, doing so while offering first-rate reliability, security, and stability.
What do you understand by Puppet in DevOps?
It is a configuration management tool that is used for automating administration tasks. Puppet makes use of the Master-Slave architecture in which the two entities communicate via an encrypted channel.
System admins need to perform a lot of repetitive tasks, notably installing and configuring servers. Writing scripts for automating such tasks is an option but it becomes hectic when the infrastructure is large. Configuration management is a great workaround for this.
Puppet helps in configuring, deploying, and managing servers. Not only does it make such redundant tasks easier but it also cuts a significant portion of the total work time. The mature configuration management tool:
Continuously checks whether the needed configuration for a host is in place or not. If altered, the configuration is automatically reverted back
Defines distinct configurations for every host
Does dynamic scaling (up and down) of machines
Provides control over all the configured machines so that a centralized change can automatically get propagated to all of them
DevOps has something called CI. What is it and what is its purpose?
CI in DevOps stands for Continuous Integration. CI is a development practice in which developers integrate code into a shared repository multiple times in a single day.
Continuous Integration of development and testing enhances the quality of the software as well as reducing the total time required for delivery.
The developer has broken the build if a team member checking in code runs into a compilation failure. As such, other developers are not able to sync with the shared source code repository without introducing compilation errors into their own workspaces.
This disrupts the collaborative and shared development process. Hence, as soon as a CI build breaks, it’s important to identify and correct the problem immediately.
Typically, a CI process includes a suite of unit, integration, and regression tests that run each time the compilation succeeds. In case any of the aforesaid tests fail, the CI build is considered unstable (which is common during an Agile sprint when development is ongoing) and not broken.
Which are the most popular DevOps tools?
The most popular DevOps tools are listed below:
Git: Version Control System tool
Jenkins: Continuous Integration tool
Docker: Containerization tool
Puppet: Configuration Management and Deployment tools
Ansible: Configuration Management and Deployment tool
Nagios: Continuous Monitoring tool
What does CAMS in DevOps stand for?
The acronym CAMS is usually used for describing the core creeds of DevOps methodology. It stands for:
What are the anti-patterns of DevOps?
A pattern is common usage usually followed. If a pattern commonly adopted by others does not work for your organization and you continue to blindly follow it, you are essentially adopting an anti-pattern. There are myths about DevOps. Some of them include:
DevOps is a process
Agile equals DevOps?
We need a separate DevOps group
Devops will solve all our problems
DevOps means Developers Managing Production
DevOps is Development-driven release management
DevOps is not development driven.
DevOps is not IT Operations driven.
We can’t do DevOps – We’re Unique
We can’t do DevOps – We’ve got the wrong people
Which VCS tool you are comfortable with?
You can just mention the VCS tool that you have worked on like this: “I have worked on Git and one major advantage it has over other VCS tools like SVN is that it is a distributed version control system.”
Distributed VCS tools do not necessarily rely on a central server to store all the versions of a project’s files. Instead, every developer “clones” a copy of a repository and has the full history of the project on their own hard drive.
Explain how you can setup Jenkins job?
My approach to this answer will be to first mention how to create Jenkins job. Go to Jenkins top page, select “New Job”, then choose “Build a free-style software project”.
Then you can tell the elements of this freestyle job:
Optional SCM, such as CVS or Subversion where your source code resides.
Optional triggers to control when Jenkins will perform builds.
Some sort of build script that performs the build (ant, maven, shell script, batch file, etc.) where the real work happens.
Optional steps to collect information out of the build, such as archiving the artifacts and/or recording javadoc and test results.
Optional steps to notify other people/systems with the build result, such as sending e-mails, IMs, updating issue tracker, etc..
Mention some of the useful plugins in Jenkins.
Below, I have mentioned some important Plugins:
Maven 2 project
What is the DevOps toolchain?
A stack of tools combine to form a DevOps toolchain, it automates the tasks like developing and deploying your application. DevOps can be performed manually with simple steps, but the need for automation quickly increases with the increase in its complexity, and toolchain automation is essential for continuous delivery. GitHub a Version Control Repository is the core component of a DevOps toolchain. More tools may contain backlog tracking, delivery pipelines, etc.
What is AWS DevOps?
AWS facilitates essential services that help you implement DevOps at your company and that are built to use in collaboration with AWS. These services automate manual actions, help teams manage complex environments at scale, and keep engineers stable of the high velocity generated by DevOps.
What is the significance of NRPE in Nagios?
“Nagios Remote Plugin executor” popularly known as NERP enables us to execute the Nagios plugins remotely. With the help of this mechanism, we can check the performance parameters of the remote Machine.
Explain Nagios working?
Nagios runs on a server either as a background process or as a service. Nagios will run the plugins regularly with the help of the hosts or servers present in your Network. We can check the status information by using the web interface. It will execute the scripts based on a schedule.
Tell me about a few scripts you’ve developed in the past that have been critical to your DevOps success.
Scripting is one of those critical skills for DevOps engineers. I’m sure you’ve heard that old saying, “Life would be so much easier if there were two of me.” Scripting is your cloning machine. Whether it’s Python, Powershell, or some other flavor, scripting is a powerful tool to help you do more with less. A DevOps engineer doesn’t have to be a full fledged programmer, but they do need to know how to leverage scripting to make their job easier
The future of DevOps
They are lots of Change likely to happens in the DevOps world some most prominent are:
Organizations are shifting in their needs to weeks and months instead of years.
We will see soon that DevOps engineers have more access and control of the end user than any other person in the enterprise.
DevOps is becoming a valued skill for IT people. For example, a survey conducted by Linux hiring found that 25% of respondent’s job seeker is DevOps expertise.
DevOps and continuous delivery are here to stay. Therefore companies need to change as they have no choice but to evolve. However, the mainstreaming the notion of DevOps will take 5 to 10 years.
The certification course offered by the company are:
- Ansible Training
- CHEF Training
- Continuous Integration with Jenkins Training
- DevOps Advanced Training
- DevOps Foundation Certification Training
- DevOps Leader Training
- DevOps Technical Essentials Training
- Docker Essentials and Administration Training
- Docker for Developers Training
- Docker Technical Essentials Training
- Docker with Kubernetes Training
- IT Automation with Saltstack Training
- Kubernetes Technical Essentials Training
- Openstack training
- Puppet for Application Deployment Training
- Puppet Technical Essentials Training
- Saltstack Technical Essential Training
So look beyond including a title as ‘DevOps Engineer’ and various tool names (such as Chef, Puppet, Saltstack ) onto your resume. DevOps is all about practices, principles and developing a collaborative environment that enhances software delivery and improves business value. With a large number of resources available on the web, you can stay updated and can adopt a DevOps way of thinking.
Are you looking to get trained on DevOps, we have the right course designed according to your needs. Our expert trainers help you gain the essential knowledge required for the latest industry needs. Join our DevOps Certification Training program from your nearest city.